Agency Theory and Antifragility: Formation of Filipino Teachers


  • Emiliano T. Hudtohan


Agency Theory, Theory of Emergenetics, Antifragility, Performance-Evaluative, Iterative, Projective. Heutagogy, Andragogy, and Pedagogy


Geil Browning’s Theory of Emergenetics says that we are a product of nature (DNA) and nurture (influence of school, society, government, business and beliefs).  In more vivid details, the Agency Theory of Priestly, Biesta and Robinson enumerates three key dimensions of being an agent who effectively interacts with his/her environment. These are  the Performance-Evaluative, 2. Iterative and 3. Projective dimensions.  This paper presents the concept of Antifragility of Nassim Taleb as the peak performance of an Agent. The Filipino teacher is presented as an Agent who is Antifragile.  The narrative presents a historical reflection on the Filipino teacher as a babaylan, a Christian teacher influenced by a Spanish cultural tradition and a humanist  teacher with  an American democratic perspective.   The paper concludes that: 1. The New Normal is challenging educators to address the creativity and innovation, global and local citizenship, digital technology and interpersonal and intrapersonal relationship inside and outside the classroom. 2. Technology is a key driver of learning and all human endeavors, especially in the age of global civilization, digital civilization, ecological civilization and spiritual civilization. 3. The 21st century Antifragile Teacher Agent must continue to pursue a framework for pedagogy, andragogy, and heutagogy. 4. An Antifragile Teacher Agent must continue explore and upgrade her/his consciousness in the realm of physical, metaphysical and spiritual realities.


Alcinas, I. F. (1668). Historia de las islas e indios de Bisayas…1668 (C.J., Kobak, C.J. & L. Gutierrez, eds., trans., & Anno.) published in 2002. History of the Bisayan People in the Philippine Islands: Evangelization and culture at the contact period. Manila, Philippines: UST Publishing House.

Alzona, E. (1932). A history of education in the Philippines,1565-1930. Manila: University of the Philippines Press, 108-111, 2-10, 189, 110-111, 205-223.

Atkinson, F.W. (1902). The present educational movement in the Philippine Islands. [Report of the Commissioner of Education for the Year 1900-1901, Vol 2, Washington, D.C. Government Printing Office]. In Racelis, M. & Ick, J.C. (Eds.). (2001). Bearers of Benevolence: The Thomasites and public education in the Philippines. Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 316.

Ashridge Hult, (2016). The Age of Upheaval. Global Business. Hult International Business School.

Ayala, J. (2009). Siningbayan.In Mariano, V.D. (Ed.). Sining-Bayan: Art of Nation Building, Social Artistry Field book to Promote Good Citizenship Values for Prosperity and Integrity. Makati City: United Nations Development Programme Philippines; Quezon City: UP National College of Public Administration and Governance and Bagong Lumad Artists Foundation, Inc.

Battung, M. A.P. & Hudtohan, E.T. (2017). Spiritually-driven Leadership in Business Processing Outsourcing Workplace in Metro Manila. Journal of Business, Education and Law (BEL). 22,1.

Bennett, N. & Lemoine, G.J. (January–February, 2014). What VUCA Really Means for You. Harvard Business Review.

Braden, Gregg. (2010). Fractal Time: The Secret of 2012 and a New World Age. California: Hay House, Inc.

Beck, M. (2012). Finding your way in a wild new world. New York: Free Press.

Belita, J. (c.2010). Value-driven: Grounding of morals in evolutionary and religious narrations.

Unpublished paper. Manila: San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation, Inc.

Belita, J. (2006). God is not in the wind. Ermita, Manila: Adamson University Press.

Belita, J. (2015). Release for wholeness: A study of healing where faith and science converge and grace in nature revisited. Roxas City, Capiz: St. Anthony College of Roxas City, Inc.

Belita, H. (2008). Value-driven: The Grounding of Morals in Evolutionary and Religious Narrations. Unpublished article. San Juan de Dios Educational Foundation, Inc.

Bloch, M. (1953). The historian's craft. New York: Alfred A. Knopf,

Bloom, B.S. (1956). Taxonomy of Educational Objectives; The Classification of Educational Goals. New York:

Longmans, Green, Bloom, D.E., (2004). Health, Wealth, and Welfare.

Boucher, J. & Lance, K.C. (n.d.).The Roles of Libraries in Education. ERIC Education of Science.

Browning, g. (2005). Emergenetics (R): Tap Into the New Science of Success Paperback. USA: HarperCollins Publishers Inc.

Byrne, R. (2006). The secret. New York: Atria Books.

Calderon, J.F. (2002). Foundations of education. Manila: Rex Book Store, 448-449.

Calderon, J.F. (2002). Foundations of education. Manila: Rex Book Store, 448-449. of the Philippines. (2002).

Carucci, R.A. & Pasmore, W.A. (2002). Relationship that enable enterprise change. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.Catechism for Filipino Catholics. Intramuros, Manila: ECCE; Makati: Word & Life Foundation.

Chardin, T. de. (2021). In Spiritual Awareness / Awakening Quotes.

Constantino, R. (1975). The Philippines: A past revisited. Quezon City: Tala Publishing Services, 20-21, 29-32.

Creswell, John W. 2014. Research Design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Methods Approaches. Thousand Oaks, California: SAGE Publications.

Cruz, E.S. (Nov. 7, 2021). A digital world, Breakthrough. The Philippine Daily Inquirer.

De Guia, K. (2005). Kapwa: The Self in the Other. Pasig City: Anvil Publishing.

Demetrio, F, (1975). Philippine Shamanism and Southeast Asian Parallel. In Dialogue for Development. Cagayan de Oro City: Xavier University.

De Mesa, J. (1987). In Solidarity with the Culture: Studies in Theological Re-Rooting. Quezon City: Maryhill School of Theology.

De Mesa, J. (2006). A hermeneutics of appreciation approach and methodology. MST Review, 2.

De Mesa, J. (January-March 1986). Loob and prayer. Ministry Today 2(1).

Dyck, B. & Neubert, M.J. (2012). Management. Singapore: Cengage Learning.

Dyer, Wayne. (n.d.). Wayne W. Dyer > Quotes > Quotable Quote. Quote Investigator (n.d.) You Are Not a Human Being Having a Spiritual Experience. You Are a Spiritual Being Having a Human Experience.

Encarnacion, J. (1959). From days of liken to the coming of the transport Thomas.

In Racelis, M. & Ick, J.C., (Eds.). (2001). Bearers of Benevolence: The Thomasites and Public Education in the Philippines, Pasig: Anvil Publishing, Inc., 33.

Emirbayer, M., & Mische, A. (1998). What is agency? American Journal of Sociology, 103(4), 962–1023.

Erikson, E. H. (1994). Identity and the life cycle. NY: WW Norton.

Francisco, J.M. (2001). Creating Tagalog Christian Discourse: Body, Spirit, and Loob in Oliver’s Doctrina

Christiana. In Kwantes, A.C. (Ed.). (2001). Chapters in Philippine church history. Manila: OMF Literature, Inc.

Fowler, J. W. (1981). Stages of faith: The psychology of human development and the quest for meaning. San Francisco: Harper & Row

Francisco, J.M. (2001). Creating Tagalog Christian Discourse: Body, Spirit, and Loob in Oliver’s

Doctrina Christiana. In Kwantes, A.C. (Ed.).(2001). Chapters in Philippine church history. Manila: OMF Literature, Inc.

Gardner. H. (1999). Intelligence reformed, multiple intelligence for the 21st century. New York, USA: Basic Books.

Geremia-Lachica, M. (2012). Panay’s Babaylan: The Male Takeover. Review of Women’s Studies, 55.Catholic Bishops Conference Hall, B.F., Kalven, J., Rosen, L.S. & Taylor, B. (c.1991). Values development diagnostic sourcebook. Fond du Lac, WI: International Values Institute of Marian College.

Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence New York: Bantam Books.

_________ . (2007). Social intelligence. New York: Bantam Dell.

_________ . (2009). Ecological intelligence. London: Penguin Books.

Gonzalez, F.S.C., Luz, J. M., & Tirol, M.H. (1984). De La Salle mission statement: Retrospect and prospect. Quezon City: Vera Reyes, Inc., 46, 19-24, 14-16, 4

Hall, H.P. (1994). Values shift : a guide to personal & organizational transformation. Rockport, MA : Twin Lights Publishers.

Harari, Y.N. (2016). Homo deus: A brief history of tomorrow. London: Vintage.

Harari, Y.N. (2018). 21 lessons for the 21st century. London: Jonathan Cape.

Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From Andragogy to Heutagogy. Ultibase Articles, 5, 1-10.Emerson, R. Waldo in Hayden, J. (2014). The First Wealth. in David E. Bloom, David Canning,

and Dean T.

Heatsink, G. (1999). Practical theology: History, theory, action domains: manual for practical theology. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing.

Helmick, R.G. (2014). The crisis of confidence in the Catholic Church. London: Bloomsbury T&T Clark.

Henschke, J. A. (2009). A Perspective on the History and Philosophy of Andragogy: An International

Sketch.IACE Hall of Fame Repository.

Hernandez, J.M. (c1960). Catholic action marches On: A decade of Catholic action 1950-1960. Manila: The National Central Committee Catholic Action of the Philippines, 61.

Hicks, E . & Hicks, J. (2010). Getting into the vortex. USA: Hay House, Inc.

Hicks, E. & Hicks, J. (2008). Ask and it is given. London: Hay House, Inc.

Hick, J. (1987). The Non-Absoluteness of Christianity. In The myth of Christian uniqueness: Toward a pluralistic theology of religion. John Hick and Paul F. Knitter (Eds.). Maryknoll, NY: Orbis.

Hudtohan, E.T. (2003). Philippine Feminism: Herstory in History – Relocating the Spirit of the Babaylan. De La Salle University, Manila.

Hudtohan, E. T. (2005). 50 years of De La Salle catechetical program: Retrospect and prospect. Retrieved from

Hudtohan, E.T. (2006). Ethics, Aesthetics and Etiquette. The Philippine Education Forum. The Philippine Women’s University, Manila, 39(2).

Hudtohan, E.T. (January 28, 2011). Legal but not necessarily ethical. Manila Standard Today.

Hudtohan, E.T. (September 20, 2013). City of Pigs. Manila Standard Today.

Hudtohan, E.T, (2017). Moral Beauty. The Journal of Business Research and Development. San Beda College, Graduate School of Business.

Hudtohan, E.T. (2015). Antifragility as a Theoretical Lens in Reviewing Corporate Social Responsibility. Journal of Business, Education and Law (BEL). 26,1.

Hudtohan, E.T. (2010). The Context of Cultural Intelligence: A Book Review of David Livermore’s Leading with Cultural Intelligence: The New Secret to Success. DLSU Business & Economics Review, 20, 1.

Jinkins, H. (2009). Confronting the challenges of participatory culture: Media education for the 21st century. MIT Press.

Jocano, F.L. (1999). Working with Filipinos: A cross-cultural encounter. Manila: Punlad Research House.

Kintanar, T. (1996).The University of the Philippines Cultural Dictionary for Filipinos. Quezon City: UP Press and Anvil Publishing, Inc.InKwantes, A.C. (Ed.). (20001). Chapters in Philippine church history. Manila: OMF Literature, Inc.

Knowles, M. S. (1984). Andragogy in action. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Kohlberg, L. (1981). The philosophy of moral development: Moral stages and the idea of justice. San Francisco: Harper & Row.

Lancot, J. (n.d.). Virtue Continuum.

Lennick, D. & Kiel, F. (2008). Moral intelligence: Enhancing business performance and leadership success. New Jersey: Pearson Educational Inc.

Livermore, D. (2010). Leading with cultural intelligence. New York: American Management Association.

Livermore, D. (2009). Cultural intelligence: Improving your CQ to engage our multicultural world. Michigan: Baker Academic.

Lynch, G. (2007). The new spirituality: An introduction to progressive belief in the twenty-first century. London: I.B.Turis & Co Ltd.

Marinoff, (2007). The middle way: Finding happiness in a world of extremes. NY: Sterling Publishing Co., Inc.Madjapahit Empire.

Meghan, J. (2 October 2017). The Human Library: Where the Books are People. Reader's Digest.

Marshall, C. & Rossman, G.B. (2011). Designing qualitative research. London: Sage Publications.

Mezirow, J. (1991). Transformative dimensions of adult learning. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Moustakas, C. & Douglass, B. (1985). Heuristic inquiry: The internal search to know. Journal of Humanistic Psychology, 25(3).

Mercado, L. (1992). Inculturation and Filipino Theology. Manila: Divine Word Publications.

Mercado, L. (1976). Elements of Filipino Philosophy. Manila: Divine Word Publications.

Melencio, G.E. (Jan. 13, 2013). The babaylan lives her story. http:

Miclat-Cacayan, A.N. (2005, 22 July). Babaylan: She Dances in Wholeness, keynote address at The Babaylan. Symposium, St. Scholastica's College, Manila.

Moran, C. (2022). Quote.

Miranda, D. (1987). Pagkamakatao: Reflection on the Theological Virtues in Filipino Context. Manila: Divine Word Publication, 78-80.

Moore, G. (n.d.), Brainy Quote. In Eric B. Dixon (January 28, 2015). My Bro's Daily Word of Encouragement. https://mybrosdaily wordo fencouragement In The Brook Kerith, ch. 11 (1916).

Munoz, P.M. (2006). Early Kingdoms of the Indonesian Archipelago and the Malay Peninsula. Singapore: Editions Didier Millet.

Nadera, V. (2000). Mujer Indigena. Manila: Philippine Centennial Commission & University Press of the Philippines.

Nietzsche, F. W. (1844-1900). Beyond Good and Evil : Prelude to a Philosophy of the Future. London, England ; New York, USA Penguin Books, 1990.

Nona, G. (2013). Song of the babaylans: Living voices, medicine spiritualities of Philippine ritualist-oralist healers. Quezon City: Institute of Spirituality in Asia.

O’Murchu, D. (2004). Quantum theology: Spiritual implications of the new physics. Revised Ed. NY: The Crossroads Publishing Company

Page, C. R. (2008). 2012 and the galactic center. Vermont: Bear & Company.

Pande, M. & Vain, K. (2009). Civil Society: Networked Citizens. Ten-Year Forecast Perspective, Institute of the Future.

Pe-Pua. (2016). Unpacking the Concept of Loob (Inner): Towards developing culture-inclusive theories. Japanese Psychological Research 58(1).For 2016 issue. In Reyes, J. (2015). ). Loob and Kapwa: Thomas Aquinas and a Filipino Virtue Ethics. A doctoral dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Pe-Pua, R. & Protacio-Marcelino, E. (2000).Sikolohiyang Pilipino: A Legacy of Virgilio Enriquez. Asian Journal of Social Psychology, 3: 49-71.

Piaget, J. (1971). The theory of stages in cognitive development. In D. R. Green, M. P. Ford, & G. B. Flamer, Measurement and Piaget. McGraw-Hill.

Postma. A. (n.d.). The Laguna Copper-Plate Inscription: Text and Commentary. Philippine Studies: Historical and Ethnographic Viewpoints. . Ateneo de Manila University

Powell, D.RJ. (2003). Spirit intelligence: 175 ways of inspiriting your life and business. NSW: Richmond Ventures Pty Limited.

Priestley, M., Biesta, G.J.J. & Robinson, S. (2015). Teacher agency: what is it and why does it matter? In R. Kneyber & J. Evers (eds.), Flip the System: Changing Education from the Bottom Up. London: Routledge.

Proctor, B. (2006). in Byrne, R. (2006). The secret. New York: Atria Books

Racelis, H. M. & Ick, J.C.A (2001). Bearers of benevolence: the Thomasites and public education in the Philippines Pasig City, Philippines: Anvil Publishing.

Ramos, M. (August 2015). Enculturating Theologies in the Indigenous Categories: The Quest for Filipino Cultural Identity. International Journal of Social Science and Humanity, 5(8).

Ray, J. (2006) in Byrne, R. (2206). The secret. NY: Atria Book.

Reyes, J. (2013). Loob at Kapwa: Mga Unang Hakbang Patungo Sa Isang Pilipinong-Birtud-Etika

Gamit Si Sto. Tomas de Aquino. (J. Chua, Ed.) Asian Perspectives in the Arts and Humanities, 3(2), 1-26.

Reyes, H. (2015). Loob and Kapwa: Thomas Aquinas and a Filipino Virtue Ethics. A doctoral dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven.

Resurreccion, R.R. (2007).Malasakit, Pakikipagkapwa, at Kalinisang Loob: Pundasyon ng

Kagandahang Loob. Malay: Sining at Kultura - Mga Tanging Lathalain, 19(3).

Richardson, M.H. (2015). The quantum God: An investigation of the image of God from Quantum Science. A masteral thesis. St. Mary’s University. Halifax. Nova Scotia

Seale, A. (2003). Soul mission life vision. San Francisco, CA: Red Wheel Weiser, LLC.

Sela-Smith, S. (July 2002). Heuristic Research: A Review and Critique of Moustakas’s MethodJournal of Humanistic Psychology 42(3):53-88.

Smart, R. (2021). The Golden Age is Coming. 2VIqtqRdJX4&feature=share &f bclid=IwAR2BmzJXPt2lqua4J0Y4uRcs6i3qVbvqa20-j59XvdiW2nC6ig2ORMkptpc

Smith, J. (2015). Business research methodology. New York: Arcler Press LLC.

Stebbins, R.A. (2011). What Is Exploration? In: Exploratory Research in the Social Sciences London: SAGE Publications, Inc. City: Thousand Oaks

Taleb, N.N. (2012).Antifragile: Things that gain from disorder. New York: Random


Taleb, N. N. (2013). Philosophy: ‘Antifragility’ as a mathematical idea. Nature, 494(7438), 430-430.

Taleb, N. &R. Douady. (2012). Mathematical definition, mapping, and detection of (anti) fragility. Quantitative Finance.

Tamura, (2007). You are the answer: Discovering and fulfilling your soul’s purpose. Woodbury, Mn: Llewellyn Publications.

Tony Knight @ freeAgent42, (2018).

Royal Kingdom of the Maharlikhans. (n.d.).

Rungduin, D. C. & Rungduin, T.T. (October, 2013). The emergence of Filipino values among forgiveness International Journal of Research Studies in Psychology, 2(4), 17-34.

Salazar, Z. (1999). Ang babaylan sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas. Lungsod ng Quezon: Palimbahan ng Lahi Press, 19

Salazar, Z. (1999). Ang babaylan sa kasaysayan ng Pilipinas. Lungsod ng Quezon: Palimbahan ng Lahi Press, 19.

Schumacher, S.J., J.N. (1990). A hispanized clergy in an Americanized country. In Kwantes, A.C, (Ed.). (2001). Chapters in Philippine church history Manila: OMF Literature Inc., 252-253, 240, 238.

Seale, A. (2003). Sour mission life vision: Recognize your true gifts and make your mark in the world. CA: Red Wheel/Weiser, LLC

Sison, C.V. (2001). Teaching the 1987 Constitution part III: HumanrRights and bill of rights, Quezon City: JMC Press, Inc. , 19.

Stoltz, P. G. (2000). Adversity quotient @ work. New York: William Morrow.

Tolle, E. (1997). The Power of now: A guide to spiritual enlightenment. New York: New World Library.

Trillana III, P.S. (June 19, 2014). Rizal: Icon of Malay race.

Tulio, D.D. (1999). Foundations of Education II: Historical, Philosophical, Legal and Technological. Mandaluyong City: National Bookstore, 71.Values Technology. (n.d.). Values%20Technology.pdf

Velando, M. (2005). Babaylan Spirit and Power Roles. Kennel’s Center Commuter Art Gallery. New York City.

Veneracion, J. (1998). Mula Babaylan Hanggang Beata, in Teresa Obosan, (Ed.). Roots of Filipino spirituality. Manila: Maranatha, Inc. 31-37.

Vergara, J. M. (2011). Denigration of Babaylans. Talk delivered at Somona State University April 17, 2011.

Walsch, D. (July 22, 2021). Facebook post, M.P. Hudtohan. The Apocalypse of Belief - Healing Our Culture http://www.brucelipton.comHumans evolved from within a “Garden,”.

Watson, J. S. (1979). Perception of contingency as a determinant of social responsiveness. In E. B. Thomann,

(Ed.), Origins of the infant's social responsiveness, 1, 33–64.

Wilber, (2000). A brief history of everything (2nd rev. ed.). Boston [New York]: Shambhala ; Distributed in the United

States by Random House World Economic Forum (2021)




How to Cite

Emiliano T. Hudtohan. (2023). Agency Theory and Antifragility: Formation of Filipino Teachers. International Journal of Management and Education in Human Development, 3(02), 902–921. Retrieved from