Mantras in The Kapontasu Ritual as An Oral Tradition in Rice Field Farming and Rice Agribusiness Performance in Maintaining Family Food Availability in West Muna Regency

Authors

  • La Panga Mpalasi Universitas Sulawesi Tenggara,Indonesia
  • Hardin Universitas Sulawesi Tenggara,Indonesia
  • Hadirman Universitas Sulawesi Tenggara,Indonesia

Keywords:

Oral Tradition, Mantras in the Kapontasu Ritual, Rice Agribusiness, Field Rice, Family Food.

Abstract

Mantras in the Kapontasu ritual are one of the oral farming traditions led directly by a parika (agricultural shaman) when cultivating rice fields in the Muna ethnic community. These mantras are considered to have the power to increase crop yields, thereby being able to maintaining the availability of family food. Mantras in the Kapontasu ritual are categorized as an oral tradition because, in its implementation, they have aspects of movement/action and utterance in the form of mantras (bhatata) spoken by a parika. The mantras (bhatata) contain deep meanings and moral messages that must be followed by farmers. These moral messages are related to the basics of farming activities and the behavior of farmers in agribusiness to get abundant harvests, which eventually becomes a pillar of family food availability. This study aimed at identifying the form of the mantras in the Kapontasu ritual and investigating its function in the community related to rice farming activities in maintaining the availability of family food. In this study, the researchers applied a qualitative-historical approach with a descriptive method. Data were collected using observation, interview, and documentation techniques. Results showed that the mantras in the Kapontasu ritual consist of (1) a mantra for the embedding of initial tugal, the placement of rice seed (owine), and the arrangement of offerings, (2) a mantra for planting rice in the fields, (3) a mantra for maintaining rice plants, (4) a mantra for repelling rice plant pests, and (5) a mantra for harvesting rice plants. These mantras serve to increase crop yields and ensure the availability of food for farmers’ families. Furthermore, the function of the mantras (bhatata) as the foundation of agribusiness is to maintain the availability of family food. In addition, these mantras serve to make the following things happen: (1) Soil nutrients become abundant and sunlight and rainfall fertilize the rice plants; (2) Allah SWT blesses farmers’ efforts in agricultural activities; (3) Rice is growing well as farmers expect in ensuring the availability of food for the family; (4) The seeds planted provide blessings so that the production process runs smoothly; (5) Rice plants are protected from various diseases and pests; (6) Sown seeds produce abundant yields; (7) What farmers do in farming is blessed by Allah SWT.

References

Abdullah, Irwan. (2008). “Teori dan Metodologi Studi Agama Menuju Penelitian Agama yang Kontekstual”, dalam Pustaka Jurnal Ilmu-Ilmu Budaya, Volume VII No. 1 Februari 2008. Denpasar: Yayasan Guna Widya Fakultas Sastra Unud.

Adimihardja, Kusnaka. (1999). Mendayagunakan Kearifan Tradisi dalam Pertanian yang Berwawasan Lingkungan dan Berkelanjutan. Bandung: Humaniora Utama Press.

Antropology, International Editions, Boston Burr Ridge, II Dubuque (etc), MC GrawHill Collage.

Badudu, J.S. (1986). Sari Kesustraan Indonesia. Bandung. Pustaka Prima.

Bustanul, Agus. (2006). Agama Dalam Kehidupan Manusia, Pengantar Antropologi Agama. Jakarta: PT Raja Grafindo Persada.

Creswell, J.W. (2016). Research Design Pendekatan Metode Kualitatif, Kuantitatif, dan Campuran. Edisi Keempat. Yogyakarta: Pustaka Pelajar

Darwis (2004). Dasar-dasar Ilmu Pertanian dalam Al-Qur’an. IPB Press. Bogor.

Derbile, E.K. 2013. Reducing Vulnerability of Rain-Fed Agriculture to Drought Trough Indigenous Klowledge Systems in North-Eastern Ghana. Internatinal Journal of Calimate Change Strategies and Managent, Vol 5(1), hal. 71-94.

Dhavamony, Mariasusai. (1995). Fenomologi Agama. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

Djamaris, Edwar. (1990). Menggali Khazanah Sastra Melayu Klasik. Jakarta: Balai Pustaka.

Endraswara, Suwardi. (2003). Metodologi Penelitian Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta: Yayasan untuk Indonesia.

Hadirman, H. (2022). Dinamika Bahasa dan Budaya yang Tercermin Tradisi Lisan Katoba pada Masyarakat Muna. Al Qalam: Jurnal Ilmiah Keagamaan dan

Hafidzoh, U. A., Hadirman, H., & Luma, M. (2021). Pergumulan Islam Dan Budaya Lokal Di

Hardin. (2016). Komunikasi Transendental dalam Ritual Kapontasu pada Sistem Perladangan Masyarakat Etnik Muna. Manado: Jurnal Penelitian dan Komunikasi dan Opini Publik. Vol. 20.No.1, Juni 2016 : 63-82

Hesni dan Wa Kuasa Baka. (2018). “Ritual Popanga pada Etnik Muna”dalam Sangia: Jurnal Penelitian Arkeologi Vol.2, No.1 (Juni 2018): 21-31, Sangia: Journal Of Archaeology Research (Uho.Ac.Id) diakses 10 Juni 2022.

Kemasyarakatan, 16(3), 878-889.

Khamsa, Q. (2011). Bisnis Tanpa Rugi Ala Rasulullah. Penerbit Buku Psikologi Motivasi Religi, Nuansa Keislaman, dengan Ulasan yang Ringan, Enak dibaca dan Insya Allah Berkah. Arus Timur. Makassar.

Koderi. M. (1991). Banyumas: Wisata dan Budaya. Purwokerto: Metro Jaya.

Kotak, Cofard P. (1999). Mirror For Humnity, A Concise Interduction to Cultural

La Panga (2016). Kajian Entrepreneurship pada Berbagai Pola Usahatani Terpadu yang dikembangkan Petani Jambu mete di Kabupaten Muna. PPS.UHO. Kendari

Maleong, Lexy J. (2004). Metodologi Penelitian Kualitatif. Bandung: PT Remaja Posdakarya.

Marianti, Sitti. (2019). Ritual Tobheha pada Masyarakat Muna di Desa Lapodidi Kecamatan Kontunaga Kabupaten Muna. Kendari: Skripsi Jurusan Tradisi Lisan FIB UHO. Tidak diterbitkan.

Mariningsih, E. (2012). Pelestarian Subak dalam Upaya Pemberdayaan Kearifan Lokal Menuju Ketahanan Pangan dan Hayati. Jurnal Bumi Lestari, Vol. 12(1). Hal. 303312)

Miles, Huberman & Saldana J, (2014). Qualitative Data Analysis, A Methods Sourcebook. Jakarta: Penerbit Universitas Indonesia Press.

Monif, A. dan Kamaluddin, M. (2014). Rasulullah Bussiness School. Platinum Edition, Mega Best Seller. Tim Dawah Abuya. Semarang: Banarang Gunung Pari,

Mutmainah, N. H., Otta, Y. A., & Hadirman, H. (2021). Tradisi Rebo Kasan Di Kampung Jawa Tondano Kabupaten Minahasa. Jurnal JINNSA (Jurnal Interdipliner Sosiologi Agama), 1(1), 84-103.

Nindatu, Peinina Ireine, dkk. (2018). Pemaknaan Ritual Budi Daya Padi Ladang Suku Sahu Jio Talaí Padusua, dalam Jurnal PIKOM (Penelitian Komunikasi dan Pembangunan,

Norken I.N., I.K.Suputra, dan I.G.N.Kerta Arsana (2015). Aktivitas Aspek Tradisional Religius Pada Irigasi Subak: Studi Kasus Pada Subak Piling, Desa Biaung, Kecamatan Penebel, Kabupaten Tabanan, Laporan Penelitian, Program Magister Teknik Sipil, Program Pascasarjana Universitas Udayana Denpasar.

Pulau Nain, Kecamatan Wori, Kabupaten Minahasa Utara Tahun 2019-2020 (Studi Kasus Mandi Safar). Jurnal JINNSA (Jurnal Interdipliner Sosiologi Agama), 1(1), 6483.

Rahman, M. Taufik. (2015). Kearifan Lokal Petani dalam Ketahanan Pangan: Analisis atas Pola Hidup Petani Tradisional di SUmedang dan Perbandingannya dengan Masyarakat Agropolitan di Kabupaten Bandung. Bandung: LP2M UIN Sunan Gunung Jati Bandung.

Saputra, Heru S.P. (2007). Memuja Mantra. Yogyakarta: LKiS.

Soedjijino, dkk. (1987). Struktur dan Isi Mantra Bahasa Jawa di Jawa Timur. Jakarta: Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.

Sumaria, (2013). Bentuk dan Makna Mantra Kapontasu pada Masyarakat Petani Padi ladang di Kecamatan Kabawo Kabupaten Muna. Kendari: Skripsi Universitas Halu Oleo. Tidak Diterbitkan.

Sutawan, N. (2008). Organisasi dan Manajemen Subaj di Bali. Bali: Pustaka Bali Post.

Downloads

Published

2022-12-27

How to Cite

Mpalasi, L. P., Hardin, H., & Hadirman, H. (2022). Mantras in The Kapontasu Ritual as An Oral Tradition in Rice Field Farming and Rice Agribusiness Performance in Maintaining Family Food Availability in West Muna Regency. International Journal of Management and Education in Human Development, 2(04), 655–665. Retrieved from https://ijmehd.com/index.php/ijmehd/article/view/97